Trilling and Fadel (2009) defined 21st century learning skills as
- Learning and Innovation skills (creativity and innovation,
critical thinking and problem solving, and communication and collaboration)
- Digital Literacy skills (information literacy, media literacy, and ICT
- Career and Life skills (flexibility and adaptability, initiative
and self-direction, social and cross-cultural skills, productivity and
accountability, leadership and responsibility).
Due to the proliferation of multimodal ways of
making meaning in the 21st century, the way students are instructed and learn
in school should change and evolve in responseto the changing landscape of
literacy teaching and learning.